National Council for Work Experience Awards open to charities 20 total views, 1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. Tagged with: Awards Howard Lake | 17 September 2008 | News The National Council for Work Experience is encouraging charitable and public sector organisations throughout the UK to enter their work placement schemes into its 2008/9 Awards.They are “the only awards to recognise charitable and public sector employers providing undergraduate work experience”. For the first time the entry process can be completed entirely online.Previous winners included Cancer Research UK and Groundwork.Employers, students and careers advisers can nominate charities that they feel epitomise best practice in work experience. The Awards are open to organisations of all sizes. There are 11 categories, including an additional category – best work experience provider for International Students Studying in the UK.Anna Jarvis, Internship Executive at previous winners Cancer Research UK, said: “Being recognised by the National Council for Work Experience for providing excellent work experience has helped to raise the profile of our Internship scheme both within and outside of the organisation. The awards event was a great opportunity to meet and chat to other organisations about their internship scheme, particularly those from different sectors.”The closing date for entries is 12 December 2008. Entries will be assessed solely by online application and a maximum of six companies will be short-listed in each category. Winners will be announced at the Awards ceremony that will take place in London on 5 March 2009.www.work-experience.org/awards AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis
News Organisation AfghanistanAsia – Pacific News to go further Receive email alerts RSF asks International Criminal Court to investigate murders of journalists in Afghanistan News Help by sharing this information March 11, 2021 Find out more June 2, 2021 Find out more RSF_en Situation getting more critical for Afghan women journalists, report says Reporters Without Borders condemned an assault on cameraman Omid Yakmanish, of Tolo TV, the 2005 laureate of its press freedom award, who was beaten up by two parliamentarians while covering a debate in parliament.He had gone to parliament on 7 May 2006 for a controversial debate on media coverage of the day of commemoration of the Mujahideen victory over Russia. One deputy, Malalai Joya, provoked fierce reactions when she stood up to denounce atrocities committed by the Mujahideen and other members of parliament threatened her with death.Parliamentarians, Mohamed Husaini, representing Ghazni, and Fazlullah Mujadidi, for Logar, both south of Kabul, then set upon and beat Yakmanish to stop him filming the scene.”This brutality demonstrates how little store some Afghan deputies set by the work of the independent press,” said Reporters Without Borders. “We urge the parliamentary speaker to call to order the deputies responsible for this assault and ensure that such acts are not repeated.”Another journalist, Haseeb Sharifee, was threatened on 5 May, by the Takhar provincial council for broadcasting a “sarcastic” poem on Takhar TV. Elsewhere, reporters on local radio Sadae Haqiqat were threatened on 3 May by local officials in Samagan province in the north-west of the country after the provincial governor and the police chief complained that they had been asking awkward questions.President of the Afghanistan Independent Journalists’ Association, Rahimullah Samander, said that the authorities refuse to reply to journalists’ questions in several of the country’s provinces.Finally, parliament recently rejected a candidate proposed by President Hamid Karzai for the job of minister of information as conservative deputies apparently sought to impose their own candidate. The independent journalists’ association expressed its concern in the face of these attempts by former Muhajideen to try to take control of this key post for press freedom.Reporters Without Borders urges President Karzai to put a liberal candidate before parliament. News Afghanistan : “No just and lasting peace in Afghanistan without guarantees for press freedom” May 3, 2021 Find out more AfghanistanAsia – Pacific May 12, 2006 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Members of parliament beat up cameraman Follow the news on Afghanistan
RSF_en June 9, 2011 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Web page editor arrested Organisation News Help by sharing this information The authorities arrested Hussein Ali Makki, the editor of the Facebook and Twitter pages of Rasad News, an important source of news about human rights violations in Bahrain. Thereafter, the security forces apparently gained control of these pages, and began posting content critical of the demonstrations and openly supporting the government crackdown. Access to PalTalk, an online voice and video chat service that allows communication with Internet users on different networks, had meanwhile reportedly been blocked since the start of June. “Bahrain Nation,” a chatroom that allowed government opponents to talk to hundreds of Bahraini Internet users, was apparently one of the main targets.
May 13, 2021 Find out more Follow the news on Mexico to go further Reporter murdered in northwestern Mexico’s Sonora state News Receive email alerts The newspaper’s owner, José Abella García, told Imagen Radio : “Everything has gone up in flames. It’s all gone.” Fatanes described the newspaper as a citizens’ campaigning daily for the city. “We draw attention to bad workmanship and negligence on the part of local authorities,” he told Reporters Without Borders. News MexicoAmericas Help by sharing this information November 8, 2011 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Newspaper burned to the ground by armed attackers in Veracruz state The offices of the Mexican daily El Buen Tono in the city of Córdoba in the south-eastern state of Veracruz were almost totally destroyed in an early morning arson attack two days ago, barely a month after it was launched.“A description obtained by Reporters Without Borders from the newspaper’s publisher, Julio Fatanes leaves no doubt that it was intended to silence the newspaper,” the press freedom organization said.“A motive has yet to be established, although some elements point to a political one. We hope that the judicial authorities in Veracruz state will have the courage to explore this avenue and will act with complete independence.“We recall that other serious attacks on press freedom in the region since the start of the year have gone entirely unpunished. Veracruz has become one of the deadliest states in the country this year with the murders of three journalists, and among those most affected by the war among drug cartels.” About 15 armed men burst into the newspaper’s offices two days ago after firing at the front of the building. About 20 employees were on the premises at the time. The attackers emptied cans of gasoline and set fire to the building. Members of the editorial staff had just enough time to take refuge in the press hall. 2011-2020: A study of journalist murders in Latin America confirms the importance of strengthening protection policies News RSF_en El Buen Tono recently published several articles accusing the mayor of Cordoba, Francisco Portilla Bonilla, of involvement in corruption and influence-peddling. It went so far as to demand the dismissal of the state’s head of public transportation, Carlos Demuner Pitol, because he did not have the academic qualifications for the job.“It must be someone that we have written about who feels outraged and who has considerable criminal influence to have the means to order a newspaper to be burned down,” Fatanes added. The newspaper lodged a complaint yesterday with the federal justice ministry’s special prosecutor for attacks on freedom of expression. Organisation MexicoAmericas April 28, 2021 Find out more May 5, 2021 Find out more NSO Group hasn’t kept its promises on human rights, RSF and other NGOs say Reports
Share Save The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Consumer sentiment gained another five points in an early December measure, putting confidence levels at a near eight-year high.The Thomson Reuters/University of Michigan survey of consumer sentiment came in at a preliminary index reading of 93.8 for December, up from November’s final reading of 88.8. December’s report beat economists’ forecasts by more than four points and puts the index at its highest level since January 2007.Increases in the latest measure were broad-based. The gauge measuring consumer expectations jumped 6.2 points to hit 86.1, also the highest since January 2007, while the measure of consumer economic sentiment was up three points to 105.7, the highest since February 2007.While the month’s final index—due December 23—could see an adjustment, the latest reading is a positive sign in the middle of the holiday shopping season.In a statement, survey director Richard Curtin noted that expected wage gains are at their highest level since 2008, and consumer attitudes toward buying are the most favorable they’ve been in several decades.”Obviously, lower gasoline prices, well received employment reports, and a more optimistic view on the direction of the economy are helping drive consumer mood higher,” said Chris Christopher, director of U.S. consumer economics for IHS Global Insight, in a note.Christopher also gave some of the credit to lawmakers, who in the past few years have stood in the way of growth over debates like 2012’s fiscal cliff and last year’s government shutdown. This year, they’re on track to avoid another shutdown with a last-minute deal.”The budget deal passing is another big plus for consumer mood since continued political bickering and finger pointing is a downer,” he said. December 15, 2014 1,124 Views Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago Related Articles Tory Barringer began his journalism career in early 2011, working as a writer for the University of Texas at Arlington’s student newspaper before joining the DS News team in 2012. In addition to contributing to DSNews.com, he is also the online editor for DS News’ sister publication, MReport, which focuses on mortgage banking news. Tagged with: Consumer Confidence Consumer Sentiment Consumer Spending Politics Thompson Reuters Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago Sign up for DS News Daily The Week Ahead: Nearing the Forbearance Exit 2 days ago Home / Daily Dose / Consumer Sentiment Index Reaches Highest Level Since ’07 in December Reading Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Consumer Sentiment Index Reaches Highest Level Since ’07 in December Reading Print This Post Previous: Michigan Senate Passes Foreclosure Bill Aimed At Eliminating Blight Next: Florida Man Sentenced to Federal Prison Time for Fraud Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Consumer Confidence Consumer Sentiment Consumer Spending Politics Thompson Reuters 2014-12-15 Tory Barringer in Daily Dose, Featured, Market Studies, News About Author: Tory Barringer Subscribe
ColumnsRethinking Abortion In India: A Human Rights Conversation Niharika Kaul16 May 2021 4:46 AMShare This – xThe issue of abortion has gained particular momentum in the past few months with two interesting developments in very different parts of the world- the passage of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) (Amendment) Bill 2020 in the Rajya Sabha (Upper House) in India and the recent passage of the Argentinian abortion bill, that legalises abortions up to the 14th week of pregnancy. While the MTP (Amendment) Bill 2020 extends the existing time period within which abortion can be conducted in India to 24 weeks in some cases, the Argentinian bill replaces the prior abortion law based on the ‘exception model’, where three exceptions were allowed to an otherwise blanket criminal prohibition- when a pregnancy endangers the life or health of a woman, girl, or pregnant person, or when it results from rape. After the Argentinian Senate narrowly rejected a bill to decriminalize abortion in 2018, the lower house of Congress finally passed the bill this January.Advertisement Statistics given by the World Health Organisation (WHO) on unsafe abortions globally paint a very worrying picture. Between 2015 and 2019, on average, 73.3 million induced (safe and unsafe) abortions occurred worldwide each year. Amongst these, 1 out of 3 abortions were carried out in the least safe or dangerous conditions. Over half of all estimated unsafe abortions globally were in Asia, most of them in south and central Asia. Each year between 4.7% – 13.2% of maternal deaths can be attributed to unsafe abortion. In the backdrop of these figures, Argentina’s passage of the abortion bill is a positive step towards creating safe mechanisms for carrying out abortion in Argentina, thereby helping women and girls to access the most basic human right, i.e. the right to life.Advertisement Abortion and the right to life The right to terminate pregnancy hinges on the most fundamental human right, that is right to life. The right to life, enshrined in Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, is the most valuable right that rests in every human being, and that which’s effective protection is the prerequisite for the enjoyment of all other human rights. Treaty jurisprudence suggests that denying women access to abortion can amount to violations of the rights to health, privacy and many times, the right to be free from cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment. The General comment on right to life adopted by the UN Human Rights Committee explicitly advocates for women’s right to safe abortion as an integral part of the right to life:Advertisement Advertisement ‘restrictions on the ability of women or girls to seek abortion must not… jeopardize their lives, subject them to physical or mental pain or suffering which violates article 7, discriminate against them or arbitrarily interfere with their privacy. States parties must provide safe, legal and effective access to abortion where the life and health of the pregnant woman or girl is at risk, and where carrying a pregnancy to term would cause the pregnant woman or girl substantial pain or suffering, most notably where the pregnancy is the result of rape or incest or is not viable.’Advertisement Advertisement Advertisement Thus, the General comment places women’s right to life above any state efforts to regulate voluntary termination of pregnancy and urges states to actively revise their abortion laws to ensure the same. It affirms that criminalising abortion is contrary to right to life of women and girls because such measures compel them to resort to unsafe abortion mechanisms. Despite the clear international consensus on the importance and urgency in facilitating safe abortions, women and girls in India continue to face systemic socio-cultural, economic, religious, political and infrastructural barriers in accessing safe and dignified abortion.The MTP (Amendment) Bill 2020 in India Criminalising abortion often causes denial or delay of safe abortion, and forced continuation of pregnancy, that are in fact forms of gender-based violence. Covid-19 exacerbated delays in accessing safe abortion facilities for women and girls in India, which will have long-lasting impacts on their lives. Although the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Bill 2020 (MTP Bill 2020) in India provides for certain provisions which are progressive, it still doesn’t address some of the critical aspects about abortion that require urgent intervention. In India, the MTP Bill 2020 was introduced in the Lok Sabha in March 2020 and was recently passed in the Rajya Sabha on 16th March, 2021. Amongst the highlights of the bill is the extension of the period of conducting the abortion from 12 weeks (previously) to 20 weeks (revised) on advice by one medical practitioner. The upper gestation limit for certain categories of women is enhanced from twenty to twenty-four weeks. Second, the explanation in Section 3 regarding mental health issues caused by failure of contraceptives, substitutes ‘any married woman or her husband’ to ‘any woman or her partner’. This revision paves the way for live-in partners, un-married pregnant couples to undertake abortion which is definitely a progressive step. Right to abortion based on the principle of choice The biggest challenge posed by the amendment is that it still doesn’t place emphasis on the choice and agency of the woman; rather it prescribes limited medical, psychological and socio-cultural factors that determine whether abortion can be conducted for the woman. State level Medical Boards have been proposed to be set up to decide if a pregnancy may be terminated after 24 weeks in cases of substantial foetal abnormalities. If a woman, for whatever reason wants to get an abortion after 24 weeks, and the medical board denies her permission, she can only take recourse through a writ petition in court, which in itself isn’t an adequate remedy. The category of women who may be permitted to terminate their pregnancies between 20-24 weeks is unspecified, which are to be delineated in the MTP Rules, arguably a convenient way of usurping powers to determine the category solely by the executive. The link between discrimination and women’s reproductive role is a matter of recurrent concern which has been recognised in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) 1979, (The Convention 1979), to which India is a signatory. The Convention 1979 affirms women’s right to reproductive choice. The Supreme Court of India in the landmark judgment Justice K S Puttaswamy (Retd.), And Anr. Versus Union Of India And Ors. (2017) upheld the decision in Suchita Srivastava v Chandigarh Administration (2009) 9 SCC 1 and affirmed the right to bodily autonomy of a woman as a constitutional right, which is an ingredient of personal liberty under Article 21. Given that right to bodily autonomy is a constitutional right under Article 21, conducting an abortion to one’s pregnancy being hinged on the principle of choice over ones own body must be decriminalised, and made accessible for any woman who chooses to abort her pregnancy. In India, it is the lower caste, poor, socio-economically vulnerable women who are the biggest sufferers of criminalisation of abortion. Right to abortion is directly linked to the right to a dignified life, a fundamental right that every woman must be able to access. Destigmatisation of abortion must be a parallel process that the executive engages with, through community-based initiatives. Engaging local governing bodies, women students, health workers and practitioners to create awareness and evidence-based knowledge resources about the importance of the right to abortion and health risks involved in local languages will help trickle the effects of such campaigns down to the most marginalised sections. Investment in health infrastructure, local- level medical staff, and family planning measures through bloc – level initiatives is the only way abortion can be a reality for the Indian woman. Views are Personal  General Recommendation 35 (2017) on gender-based violence against women, updating general recommendation 19, para. 18 TagsMedical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) (Amendment) Bill 2020 World Health Organisation (WHO) Subscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. All payment options available.loading….Next Story
DL Debate – 24/05/21 Google+ Facebook Facebook Previous articleInvestigation continuing into dangerous driving incident in MuffNext articleRatification of Brexit deal offers chance for a “new start” – Markey News Highland AudioHomepage BannerNews Twitter RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Important message for people attending LUH’s INR clinic FT Report: Derry City 2 St Pats 2 By News Highland – April 27, 2021 Gardai warn people to secure vehicles following recent thefts WhatsApp Twitter WhatsApp Gardai in Buncrana and Letterkenny are investigating thefts from a number of cars.Between 4:45pm and 8:45pm on Saturday last, a black River Island handbag with a badge and gold chains containing a large sum of money was stolen from an unlocked car in Carndonagh.Meanwhile, in Letterkenny on Saturday also between 10pm and 10:30am the following morning, four wind visors were stolen from a car parked in the owners driveway in the An Gleann Rua, Killylastin area.Anyone with any information regarding both incidents is being asked to contact Gardai.Garda Claire Rafferty is reminding people to ensure their vehicle is locked at all times:Audio Playerhttps://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/raffertythefts1pm.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume. Harps come back to win in Waterford Pinterest Derry draw with Pats: Higgins & Thomson Reaction Google+ News, Sport and Obituaries on Monday May 24th Pinterest
iStock(HOUSTON) – Two former Houston police officers involved in a botched drug raid that killed a married couple earlier this year have been arrested on federal charges, according to authorities.The neighbor who called 911 has been arrested as well, Houston Police Chief Art Acevedo announced during a news conference Wednesday.On Jan. 28, 58-year-old Rhogena Nicholas, her husband, 59-year-old Dennis Tuttle, and a pit bull in the home were shot and killed on Harding Street in southeast Houston when police carried out a search warrant on the home. Four police officers were also shot and wounded in the raid.A subsequent investigation later revealed that one of the narcotics officers who was shot, 54-year-old Gerald Goines, allegedly lied to obtain a no-knock warrant for the raid. The investigation also claimed that the confidential informant who Goines said conducted two drug purchases of black tar heroin at the home never went to the house, according to an affidavit filed in Harris County District Court in February.Goines was federally charged with deprivation of rights under color of law, destruction, alteration or falsification of records in federal investigations and tampering with a witness, victim or informant.He was previously charged with two counts of murder in the couple’s deaths by the Harris County District Attorney’s Office.In the wake of the botched raid, the police department ended the practice of no-knock warrants and opened up 1,400 criminal cases associated with Goines to review.Another former Houston police officer, Steven Bryant, was also federally charged with destruction, alteration or falsification of records. He was previously charged in Harris County with tampering with a government record under state law.Prosecutors claim Bryant submitted a document containing false information that drugs were found in the home two days after the raid happened, ABC Houston station KTRK-TV reported, citing court documents. Prosecutors allege that Bryant retrieved heroin from Goines’ car on Jan. 30 and wrote that the drugs were evidence found during the raid, according to the station.Bryant allegedly later admitted the “mistake” to investigators and stated that he never participated in the narcotics investigation at the home, KTRK-TV reported, per the court documents.The woman who lived across the street from the couple, 53-year-old Patricia Garcia, has also been arrested and federally charged with providing false information for allegedly making several fake 911 calls, Acevedo said. Police had previously stated that the raid stemmed from numerous complaints from neighbors.All three were arrested Wednesday by the FBI and were being held at the FBI’s Houston field office, Acevedo said.Attorneys for Goines, Bryant and Garcia did not immediately return ABC News’ request for comment.Goines’ attorney, Nicole DeBorde, told KTRK-TV she believes he was overcharged.“I firmly believe that Mr. Goines is innocent of any crime and we look forward to defending this case vigorously in court,” DeBorde told the station.Bryant’s attorney, Andy Drumheller, told KTRK-TV his client is facing a “tough situation,” but said Bryant “was not involved in drafting the search warrant, never entered the home and never fired a weapon.”Friends of the victims told KTRK-TV they were not the hardcore heroin dealers they were described to be in the falsified search warrants.The attorney representing the Nicholas family, Michael Patrick Doyle, said in a statement that the family hopes justice “will be expedited by the FBI’s actions.”“The investigation of the rogue Harding Street raid and the Houston Police Department must continue as far and wide as necessary,” Doyle said. “If city officials continue to refuse to disclose what happened in these HPD killings, we hope federal authorities will do so. The federal indictments confirm the breadth and depth of the lies told to justify the raid before and after the death of Rhogena Nicholas.” Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.
Previous Article Next Article This week’s guruNaked ambition revives old prankAs a student, Guru’s party piece at social events was to go into a cupboard,strip off naked and reappear carrying his drink to mingle with guests. So he has every sympathy for two pilots who have been sacked for flying aBoeing 737 in their birthday suits. The two men, who worked for US outfit Southwest Airlines, were reported whenan air hostess saw them mid-flight after being called to the cockpit to deliverpaper towels. The pilots, who have not been named, claim one of them removed his uniformafter spilling coffee on it and are appealing against the decision. The USFederal Aviation Administration has said there is no specific ban on nakedflying. Southwest’s founder, Herb Kelleher, previously said the airline looked forstaff “with a sense of humour who don’t take themselves tooseriously”. Inspired, Guru decided to revive his student prank at work and was gratifiedthat his old magic has not deserted him. Colleagues fell about laughing when hereappeared from the stationary cupboard dressed as nature intended (althoughtheir mirth might have had something to do with the extra frosty airconditioning). Fat cat creams off reward for mistress Guru has been getting bored reading the stream of recent headlines onfat-cat salaries paid to senior executives in under-performing companies. So he was interested to learn of one boardroom bust up based on sex ratherthan remuneration packages. Internet company Host Europe’s board of directors has claimed its chiefexecutive Abby Hardoon lavished financial favours on his mistress, who wasformerly his secretary. The directors went public about Hardoon’s affair after he and his twoco-founders called an emergency meeting, urging shareholders to oust the board.Board members also criticised his communication skills and time-keeping. A spokesman for Hardoon confirmed that he did have an affair with hissecretary, and that she subsequently received a pay rise. He added that a womanhad since left the company, and Hardoon was reconciled with his wife. Guru hopes the shareholders are as forgiving as Hardoon’s long-sufferingspouse when the meeting is held on 16 May. Gallic goodwill is struck off the menu The British and French have always had a love-hate relation-ship,highlighted at the moment by differences over Iraq. Consequently, Guru was not surprised to learn that a Frenchman is claimingrace discrimination and wrongful dismissal from his post as head chef of anine-strong chain of French restaurants in the UK. Jacques Troquet claims Raymond Defazio discriminated against him after hisCafé Med business took over the Café Flo chain in London where Troquet worked.The chef alleges he was forced to take redundancy after being offered a morejunior job with an £8,000 pay cut. Troquet told the hearing last week that Glaswegian Defazio set aboutremoving anything remotely Gallic – including the French menu, Evian mineralwater and even garlic. On the day they met, Troquet told the tribunal: “Hewas asking everyone where they were from. Because he was Scottish, I told him Iwas married to a Scottish lady and he said ‘oh you poor miserable bastard’. Ifound it absolutely condescending and insulting, not just to me, but to mywife.” No wonder Blair and Chirac could not agree over Saddam’s weapons of massdestruction. Sorry I’m late but I was kidnapped Guru recently published examples of outlandish workplace excuses. However, aGerman office worker surely takes the prize for the most radical excuse forpersistent absenteeism. Walter Hoffman tied himself up, slashed the tyre of his car and staged avariety of other incidents to validate his persistent non-attendance at work.He claimed he was the target of a hate campaign by mystery assailants. Hoffman, 23, eventually admitted to police he had staged the elaboratehoaxes to avoid going to work because it was so boring. Guru hopes Hoffman’s employer recognises his creative talents and harnessesthem in a more appropriate area, such as public relations. GuruOn 6 May 2003 in Personnel Today Comments are closed. Related posts:No related photos.
The pattern of growth of Polytrichum alpestre Hoppe, a common moss in the maritime Antarctic, is described. It may form extensive communities, sometimes growing with another moss, Chorisodontium aciphyllum (Hook. f. & Wils.) Broth. Underlying the basic stability of such communities there is a persistent change in shoot composition from season to season. These changes have been followed both photographically and stratigraphically, since a complete record of past changes exists within the slowly decomposing turf. Considerable instability in the total population of shoots of P. alpestre occurs during the first few years of its establishment but as time proceeds and conditions more favourable to the growth of P. alpestre develop, the mean life expectancy of shoots increases. Variation in spatial density of shoots is discussed in relation to size and weight of the annual increments in P. alpestre. The relationship between weight of the annual increment and the spatial density approximates to the density effect law applied to higher plants, in which yield per unit area is little affected by variation in density